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Laws of the 3 Weeks

The three weeks between the fasts of the 17th of Tamuz and the 9th of Av are a period of mourning for Yerushalayim and the Beit HaMikdash. The meaning and purpose behind these various halachot and minhagim is to help us feel the severity of this sad time in the Jewish calendar, a period that culminates in Tisha B'Av. Therefore, the customs of mourning intensify as we move closer to Tisha B'Av itself. Click below for more information:

Restrictions of the 3 Weeks

The "Three Weeks," or the time period between the fasts of Shiva Asar B'Tamuz and Tisha B'Av, begin on Saturday night, July 16th. Although the fast of Shiva Asar B'Tamuz does not start until the morning of Sunday, July 17th, many hold that the restrictions of the "Three Weeks" start the night before. The following activities are prohibited:
  • Weddings
  • Music. It is prohibited to play music or to listen to music. Even a student should not practice during the three weeks unless his or her skills will be set back considerably by the lack of practice. According to many, this prohibition includes even taped music, though others permit it.  Joyous singing is certainly permitted on Shabbat.
  • Haircutting is prohibited both for men and women. In cases of need, children's hair may be cut until the week of Tisha B'Av.
  • Shaving is prohibited according to most authorities, if not needed for business purposes. However, Rav Soloveitchik held that shaving was permitted until the nine days and many follow his opinion.
  • Home beautification may continue until Rosh Chodesh.  However, it is best not to begin painting and beautification of the home during the three weeks. If there are no other dates available, one can begin during this time.
  • Important purchases that would require a beracha of "shehechiyanu" - a new car, major appliances and furniture, clothes for semachot and the like-should be put on hold. If there is a major sale, or one is left without a car or important appliance, these objects may be purchased (even during the "Nine Days").

Restrictions of the 9 Days

With Rosh Chodesh Av, the more intense period of mourning for the destruction of the Beit HaMikdash known as the "Nine Days begins." Rosh Chodesh begins Thursday night, July 28th, and all of the restrictions of the "Nine Days" begin immediately with Rosh Chodesh. 

  • Home Repairs. Building for beauty or pleasure not required for dwelling should be suspended. Therefore, painting, wallpapering and general home decoration should not be done. Similarly, one should not plant for pleasure. Functional home repairs can be made.
  • Purchases and Clothing Repairs. New clothing may not be worn. One may not buy new clothes or shoes even for use after Tisha B'Av, except in a case of great necessity. One may also buy things - even "items of joy" - during the Nine Days, if they will be difficult to find after Tisha B'Av, or even it they will be more expensive then. If one forgot or was unable to buy special shoes needed for Tisha B'Av, he may do so during the nine days. Repairing torn garments or shoes is permitted.
  • Meat and Wine. The custom is to refrain from eating meat and poultry or drinking wine and grape juice during the nine days. This also pertains to young children. The prohibition of meat includes foods cooked with meat or meat fat. However, foods cooked in a clean vessel used for meat may be eaten. Eating meat and drinking wine is permitted for Shabbat. Even one who has ushered in the Shabbat on Friday afternoon before sunset, or extends the third meal of Shabbat into Saturday night may also eat meat and drink wine at those times. A child who eats early shabbat dinner every Friday afternoon may continue to do so. Similarly, one may drink the wine of Havdala. However, grape juice is preferable according to some. Meat and wine are also permitted at a seudat mitzvah such as a brit milah, Pidyon haben, and a siyum. 
  • Laundering. Laundering is prohibited even for use after Tisha B'Av. One may not even give clothing to a non-Jewish cleaner. (Although one may give it to him before the 1st of Av, even though he'll wash during the nine days.) The prohibition of laundering includes linens, tablecloths, and towels. A person who has no clean clothes may wash what he needs until the Shabbat before Tisha B'Av. Children's clothing that constantly gets dirty may be washed by need even during the week of Tisha B'Av, in private. One may polish shoes with liquid or wax polish, but should avoid shining shoes.
  • Wearing Freshly Laundered Clothing. It is forbidden to wear freshly laundered clothing during the nine days. However, this does not apply to undergarments and shirts that are changed when one perspires. One can prepare before the nine days by wearing freshly laundered suits, pants, dresses and the like for a short time so that they may be worn during the nine days. Here too, the prohibition of using freshly laundered items applies to linens, tablecloths, and towels. One may wear freshly laundered Shabbat clothing, as well as use clean tablecloths and towels. Changing bed linen, though, is prohibited.
  • Bathing and Swimming. The custom is not to bathe for pleasure even in cold water. Showering is permitted when necessary but should be done quickly in warm water. One may bathe on Friday in honor of Shabbat with hot water. Women may immerse in the mikveh until Tisha B'Av, and may prepare in their normal manner. Swimming is permitted until Rosh Chodesh Av. From Rosh Chodesh on, only instructional swim for children is permitted.
  • Hair Cutting and Shaving. Hair cutting and shaving are prohibited. Even those who shave during the Three Weeks should avoid shaving during the Nine Days. One may cut fingernails until the week in which Tisha B'Av occurs. If Tisha b'Av is on a Sunday, one may cut his/her nails all the way until Erev Tisha B'Av, the Shabat immediately preceding Tisha B'Av.
  • Trips. Pleasure trips are forbidden only on Tish'a B'Av itself. However, one should refrain from purely pleasurable major trips from Rosh Chodesh. Trips abroad should specifically be avoided. Trips to Israel, on the other hand, are allowed because of the mitzvah aspect involved.
  • Business. It is generally agreed that in today's economy, the factors of financial loss- rent, salaries, utilities, etc., would permit business as usual during the Nine Days. Depending upon the type of business and the possible effects of "closing shop" for more than a week, the applications of the halacha may vary.

Laws of Tisha B'Av

The laws that pertain to the day of Tisha B'Av begin at sunset, Saturday, August 6th.
  • Eating and Drinking. All eating and drinking is forbidden. This includes rinsing the mouth and brushing teeth. Swallowing capsules or bitter tablets or liquid medicine without water is permitted. The ill or elderly as well as pregnant and nursing women are generally required to fast, unless a doctor says that fasting may injure health. If you have any medical condition or are pregnant or nursing and have questions please call the rabbi.  Those not required to fast should eat only what is needed to preserve their health.
  • Bathing and Washing. All bathing for pleasure is prohibited even in cold water including the hands, face and feet. Ritual washing upon waking, after using the bathroom, touching covered parts of the body or before praying is permitted, but only up to the knuckles. One may wash dirty or sullied portions of the body (including cleaning the eyes of glutinous material), and if necessary may use soap or warm water to remove the dirt or odor. Washing for cooking or for medical reasons is permitted. A woman may not immerse on Tisha B'Av since relations are prohibited. Washing to commence the clean days is permitted.
  • Anointing. Anointing for pleasure is prohibited including oil, soap, alcohol, cream, ointment, perfume, etc. Anointing for medical reasons is permitted, as well as using deodorant to remove bad odor.
  • Marital Relations are forbidden. In addition, some hold that all of the "harchakot nidah", such as touching and sleeping in the same bed are prohibited as well. These additional restrictions are relaxed in the daytime.
  • Wearing Leather Shoes. Even shoes made partially of leather are prohibited. Shoes made of cloth, rubber or plastic are permitted. Wearing leather shoes is permitted for medical reasons.
  • Learning Torah. Since the heart rejoices in the study of Torah, it is prohibited to learn topics other than those relevant to Tisha B'Av or mourning. One may learn (partial list): Lamentations with its midrash and commentaries, portions of the Prophets that deal with tragedy or destruction, the third chapter of Moed Katan (which deals with mourning), the story of the destruction (in Gittin 56b-58a, Sanhedrin 104, and in Josephus), works of mussar, and the halachot of Tisha B'Av and mourning.
  • Sleep. One should deprive himself of some comfort in sleep. Some reduce the number of pillows, some sleep on the floor. Pregnant women, the elderly and the ill are exempt.
  • Sitting on a normal chair is forbidden until midday. One may sit on a low bench or chair, or on a cushion on the floor. One who is unable to sit on a low chair (sick or elderly people, pregnant or nursing mothers) may sit on a regular chair.
  • Greeting someone with "good evening", "good morning" and the like is prohibited. One who is greeted should answer softly and, if possible, inform the person of the prohibition.
  • Gifts. One should not give a gift except to the needy.
  • Idle Activity. Things that divert one from mourning such as idle talk, reading the newspaper, taking a walk for pleasure, etc. are prohibited.
  • Smoking is prohibited until afternoon. Those who absolutely must smoke may do so in private in the afternoon.
  • Work. The custom is to refrain until midday from any time-consuming work that diverts one from mourning.

When 9 Av starts on Friday night

It is forbidden to show public mourning on Shabbat.  The Shabbat before Tisha B'Av should be celebrated as one does every Shabbat.  In the afternoon of Shabbat after sundown but before Shabbat ends at dark, the following halachot apply:
  • One should eat a regular Shabbat seudah shelishit meal, this may include meat and wine if one so desires.
  • At sundown one should stop eating but continue wearing shoes and sitting in regular chairs until Shabbat ends.  One should not wash for pleasure during this period of time between sundown and dark but if one goes to the bathroom they may wash their hands as they regularly do.
  • When Shabbat ends one recites the words "Baruch hamavdil bein kodesh lichol" "Blessed is the One who separates between the holy and the weekday."  Following that one may do work such as driving.  One also makes the blessing "bore meorey haeish" on a havdalah candle.  Sunday night at the end of Tisha B'Av havdalah is recited over beer.  If one has no beer, then grape juice should be used; if one does not have beer or grape juice then wine may be used.  Some hold that havdalah may also be made on coffee or tea as these are considered "important" drinks of the country.
  • When Tisha B'av is pushed off to Sunday, (as it is this year 2022), we are more lenient with the fast.  If sone fees a bit ill, or is pregnant or nursing, and does not feel well from the fast they may eat.  

Tefillah on Tisha B'Av

  • Ashkenazim do not wear tefillin at Shacharit, nor is a blessing made on tzitzit. At Mincha, tefillin is worn and those who wear a tallit gadol make the blessing then.
  • Some Sefardim wear the tallit and tefillin at Shacharit as usual.
  • At Mincha, the prayers Nacheim and Aneinu are added to the Shemonah Esrei during the blessing "Veliyerushalayim" and "Shma Koleinu" respectively. "Sim Shalom" is said in place of "Shalom Rav." If one forgot these changes he need not repeat the Shemoneh Esrei.

The Day After Tisha B'Av

  • Many say Kiddush Levana at the conclusion of Tisha B'Av. We do not wait for the following motzei Shabbat. 
  • The limitations of the "Three Weeks" and the "Nine Days" continue until midday of the 10th of Av.  In a year when Tisha B'av is pushed to the 10th of Av, the day after the fast is the 11th and these laws do not apply.    Nevertheless since the day was spent fasting one does not eat meat or drink wine on that Sunday night (except the wine of havdoloh).
Mon, May 29 2023 9 Sivan 5783